Monday, January 30, 2012

Grid Painting Project: Due 2/3


1.  In Illustrator, develop a "Personal Color Wheel" based on three hues of your choice.  These hues become your new "primary colors" and will mix to create secondary and tertiary colors.  Below is an example:

2.  In Illustrator mix shades and tints of your three hues.  Below is an example:

3.  Print the Color Wheel and Tint and Shade studies.

4.  Plan a grid based painting in your sketchbook or in Illustrator.  The final painting will be 10 in x 10 in on illustration board. Develop a planer grid structure, it may be regular or irregular. Plan which hues will go in each square or rectangle.

5.  Paint the final with flat color.

Materials for  Class:
1.  Digital Drive with Planer Pattern Files.
2.  Sketchbook.
3.  Printouts of the Color Wheel and Tint and Shade studies.

Student Examples





Color, Space & The Grid


Several artists work in the limited planer space of the grid and use color to create movement, space and mood.  Check out the works below.  Which colors advance? Which colors recede?  Which works feel active?  Which feel quiet?  Masculine?  Feminine?  Modern?  Contemporary?

Mondrian 

Rothko

Martin


Whitney

Josef Albers- Interaction of Color

Josef Albers
The below quote is from Josef Albers' text The Interaction of Color.  Albers describes his approach to teaching color theory.
In visual perception a color is almost never seen as it really is- as it physically is.  This fact makes color the most relative medium in art.
In order to use color effectively it is necessary to recognize that color deceives continually.  To this end the beginning is not a study of color systems.
First, it should be learned that one and the same color evokes innumerable readings.  Instead of mechanically applying or merely implying laws and rules of color harmony, distinct color effects are produced- through recognition of the interaction of color- by making for instance 2 very different colors look alike, or nearly alike.  
Albers was very interested in the relationships of color.  His work can be thought of as the "Yin & Yang" of color theory.  In that all color is read in relation to other color.  You cannot have warm without cool.
Yin-Yang Symbol
The diagrams demonstrate key theory from The Interaction of Color.

Color Intervals and Transformation
Interaction of Color Figure XIV-2

Subtractive and Additive Mixture
Interaction of Color Figure X-1


Albers' interest in sensual color can best be seen in his own artistic work.  Examine his pieces below from the series Homage to the Square.

Albers
Albers
Albers
Albers

Friday, January 27, 2012

Digital Mosaic Project: Due 1/31


Digital Mosaic
1.  Design four digital pieces, each 10 in x 10 in.
2.  For each piece create a different planer structure in illustrator. 
3.  The structure must be regular and be based on the repetition of squares, triangles and hexagons.
4.  Develop a "rule" to fill in the shapes with white and black.  For example "alternate every other shape black and white."
5.  Choose a starting point on the plane and play out the rule across the plane.
6.  Print four pieces and mount separately on illustration board.  No border, no wrinkles!

Materials for Class:
1.  Sketchbook
2.  Digital Storage Device and Files
3.  Color Pencils/ Markers
4.  Ruler

Student Examples 






Thursday, January 26, 2012

The Nature of Planer Space


Dado Mosaic

In our last assignment we examined pathways in space.  We now focus on the arrangement of elements across a flat plane of space.

Planer space can be divided into regular units.  Regular units are created with the repeating of the square, triangle, or hexagon shape.  Varying the size, the square, triangle and hexagon will only fill the plane in the eight pattern formations below, as seen in Patterns in Nature, by Peter Stevens.



These patterns are often found in nature, as in the crystal grains below.


Pattern can also be created by filling a geometric planer space with shapes in systems according to repeated rules or procedures.  What "rule" created the pattern below?

Contemporary artist Gabriel Orozco created the painting below, Kytes Tree, by lining up circle segments according to the rules of the knight chess piece.  Notice the L shaped patterns of 2-up-1-over /2 -over-1-up/ 2-down-1-over/ 2-over-1-down.

Orozco, Kytes Tree

Monday, January 23, 2012

Linear Painting Project: Due 1/27


Line Pattern Painting
1.  Transfer the dot grid onto a piece of  illustration board, 8.5 in x 8.5 in.
2.  Create a linear composition based on a spiral, meander, explosion or branching pattern, or a combination of these systems. 
3.  Lines may be thin, thick, varied or consistent.  Lines may overlap.  The lines may appear to be in front of a solid background.  Or the lines may function as the background, as in alternating stripes.
4.  Select color and paint.
5.  Use tape and paint in layers to assist in creating clean edges.

Materials for Class:
1.  Digital Drive
2.  Sketchbook

Student Examples







Wednesday, January 18, 2012

The Nature of Pattern Space


Neolithic Machiayao Jar 3500 BC
We find elemental pathways in both nature and the history of pattern.  Above is an early example of the spiral pathway in a neolithic artifact.  In order to delve deeply into pattern space, we must first begin by looking at space itself.  We must understand the systems of movement and flow that structure both organic and created pattern.  As pattern is an arrangement of elements in space, the question becomes:  How can space be filled?
"The idea is this: abstract patterns, whether drawn by artists, calculated by mathematicians or produced by natural forces are shaped by the same spacial environment.  All are subject to the tyranny of space.  Synthetic patterns of lines and dots are engaging in their own right but, more importantly, they speak eloquently of the order that all things inevitably share. " - Peter Stevens
Below are the four basic flow structures outlined in Patterns in Nature by Peter Stevens.  The first grouping of dots depicts the space itself.  Then is the pathway of the spiral, meander, explosion, and branching.



Spiral


Meander





Explode




Branch








Pattern Elements


What is pattern, really?
"Pattern making in its most general form may be characterized as an ordering of elements by identity and difference.  The pattern maker often enjoys creating classes of motifs which are like in one respect and different in another."- E. H. Gombrich
Where is pattern employed? 
"Ornament- the elaboration of functionally complete objects for the sake of visual pleasure....Unlike painting and sculpture, whose subject matter provides the key for the emotional tone, ornament communicates primarily through form.  Its emotional energies are implicit, masked by the discipline of pattern.  The only way to appreciate ornament is by seeing it." - James Trilling
How is pattern structured?
"Even simple patterns offer almost infinite scope for variation, but this understanding had to be won over thousands of years.  That is just what Neolithic artists did.  In the process, they established that the only way to control a full range of forms and variations is by technical assurance, and the key to technical assurance is repetition." - James Trilling
In The Language of Ornament, author James Trilling outlines seven pairs of visual qualities that we will return to as we examine and create patterns.  Check out these opposing forces in the works below.


1.  Movement vs. Statsis
Pendant, Bactrian, 1st Century

2.  Grace vs. Strength

Miradorde Lindaraja Alhambra, 14th Century

3.  Determinacy vs. Indeterminacy
Jade Disk, Chinese, 2nd Century

4.  Comprehensibility vs. Complexity
Seduction of Yusef, Biehzad, Persian, 1488

5.  Stylization vs. Literalism

Rug Design, Victorian, 1851
Wall Paper Design, Victorian, 1848

6.  Virtuosity vs. Truth to Materials
Needle Lace, Bath, American, 1987

7.  Application to the Object vs. Integration with the Object
Cup, Moller, Norwegian, 1900